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Instruction for Authors
I. General Information

1. Korean Journal of Spine (Korean J Spine, pISSN 1738-2262, eISSN 2093-6729) is the official journal of the Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society. This Journal publishes important papers covering the whole field of spinal neurosurgery, including studies in spinal cord or spine related disease or trauma and related surgery, neuroscience, neurology, molecular biology and biomechanics. Studies on peripheral nerve disease are also acceptable with the approval from the editorial board.

2. Papers will include original articles, review articles, case reports, technical notes, letters to the editor and brief communications. Review articles can be published upon specific request by the journal.

3. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they are not under simultaneous consideration by any other publications, and that the authors realize that the identities of the reviewers are kept confidential.

4. All submitted manuscripts will be reviewed for appropriateness by at least two peer reviewers who are experts in the field. The decision to accept or reject a manuscript will be made according to their review.

II. Submission Manuscript

1. Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using online manuscript submission available at http://submit.e-kjs.org.

2. Corresponding author is responsible for submission and revision of the manuscripts. ID is required for processing and can be generated at the homepage.

3. All authors should sign on the Copyright Release, Author Agreement and Disclosure of Conflict of Interest form to certify that the contents of the manuscript have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere. If any research grant has been given by any private company or group, this information should be described on the form. All authors must sign their autograph by themselves. The form can be downloaded at the homepage of the Korean Journal of Spine (http://www.e-kjs.org), and should be submitted at the time of paper submitting.

4. Regarding author information, the list of the authors in the manuscript should include only those who were directly involved in the process of the work. Authors can refer to the guideline by Harvard University in 1999 to find details on authorship (http://www.hms.harvard.edu/integrity/authorship.html).

5. Decision for the publication of the submitted manuscript will be made solely by the editorial board.

6. For a better English copyediting, proofreading from professional editing company is recommended.

7. The manuscript should be composed of no more than 6,000 English words for original articles, 3,000 English words for technical reports and case reports. It should be composed of no more than 600 English words for letters to the editor.

Ⅲ. Manuscript Preparation

Authors should refer to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals"(http://www.icmje.org).

1. Title page
1) The title pages must be composed of external and internal title pages.
2) The external title page must contain the article title, and full names of all authors with their institutional affiliations both. The type of manuscript (clinical research, laboratory study, case report) should also be addressed. When the work includes multiple authors with different affiliations, the institution where the research was mainly conducted should be spelled out first, and then be followed by foot notes in superscript Arabic numerals beside the authors' names to describe their affiliation in a consecutive order of the numbers. Running head must be included consisting of no more than 65 characters/spaces. The external title page must also contain the address, telephone and facsimile numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author at the bottom of the page, as well as information on the previous presentation of the manuscript in conferences and funding resources, if necessary.
3) The internal title page should only contain the article title. The internal title page must not contain any information on the names and affiliations of the authors.

2. Manuscript format
1) The article should be organized in the order of title, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion, references, tables, and figures or illustrations all in English.
2) In case reports, materials and methods and results can be replaced with cases. The number of references should be 20 or less and the figure number 5 or less for case report.
3) Manuscript format may vary in review articles.

3. Abstract
1) All manuscripts must contain an abstract in English.
2) Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion sections should be included in abstract of clinical or laboratory research, but are not necessary in other types of studies
3) The abstract should include brief descriptions on the objective, methods, results, and conclusion as well as a detailed description of the data. An abstract containing 250 words or less is required for original articles and 200 words or less for case reports.
4) Abstract can be revised by the decision of editorial board, and some sentences can be modified as a result of revision.
5) A list of key words, with a minimum of two items and maximum of six items, should be included at the end of the abstract.
6) The selection of Key Words should be based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) of Index Medicus and the web site (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html).

4. Introduction
1) The introduction should address the purpose of the article concisely, and include background reports mainly relevant to the purpose of the paper. Detailed review of the literature should be addressed in the discussion section.

5. Materials and Methods
1) The article should record research plans, objective, and methods in order, as well as the data analysis strategies and control of bias in the study. Enough details should be furnished for the reader to understand the method(s) without reference to another work in the study described.
2) When reporting experiments with human subjects, the authors must document the approval received from the local Institutional Review Board. When reporting experiments with animal subjects, the authors should indicate whether the handling of the animals was supervised by the research board of the affiliated institution or such. Approved number of IRB must be noted.
3) Photographs disclosing patients must be accompanied by a signed release form from the patient or family permitting publication.

6. Results
1) The authors should logically describe their results of observations and analyses performed using methodology given in the previous section and provide actual data.
2) For biometric measurements in which considerable amount of stochastic variation exists, a statistical evaluation is mandatory. The results must be sorely from the findings of the current study and not refer to any previous reports.
3) While an effort should be made to avoid overlapping descriptions by Tables and by main text, important trends and points in the Table should be described in the text.

7. Discussion
Discussions about the findings of the research and interpretations in relation to other studies are made. It is necessary to emphasize the new and critical findings of the study, not to repeat the results of the study presented in the previous sections. The meaning and limitation of observed facts should be described, and the conclusion should be related to the objective of the study only when it is supported by the results of the research.

8. Conclusion
The conclusion section should include a concise statement of the major findings of the study in accordance with the study purpose.

9. References
The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Key the references (double-spaced) at the end of the manuscript. EndNote users can access a direct download of the updated Neurospine Publications style at https://www.e-kjs.org/ (http://submit.e-neurospine.org from March 2018). Cite references in text in the order of appearance. All references cited in the text must be both listed and cited by the reference number (footnotes are not accepted). Use superscript numerals outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. When more than 2 references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space to separate other parts of a multiple citation (e.g., As reported previously,1,3-8,19...The derived data were as follows3,4,12:)

Do not link the references to the text. Cite unpublished data, such as papers submitted but not yet accepted for publication or personal communications, in parentheses in the text. If there are more than three authors, name only the first three authors and then use et al. Refer to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus for abbreviations of journal names, or access the list at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html. Sample references are given below:

<Journal article>
1. Sakai K, Okawa A, Takahashi M, et al. Five-year follow-up evaluation of surgical treatment for cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012;37:367–76.

<Book chapter>
2. Sweitzer S, Arruda J, DeLeo J. The cytokine challenge: Methods for the detection of central cytokines in rodent models of persistent pain. In: Kruger L, ed. Methods in Pain Research. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001:109-32.

<Entire book>
3. Atlas SW. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

4. Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1994.

<Online journals>
5. Friedman SA. Preeclampsia: A review of the role of prostaglandins. Obstet Gynecol [serial online]. January 1988;71:22-37. Available from: BRS Information Technologies; McLean, VA. Accessed December 15, 1990.

6. CANCERNET-PDQ [database online]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. Updated March 29, 1996.

<World Wide Web>
7. Gostin LO. Drug use and HIV/AIDS [JAMA HIV/AIDS web site]. June 1, 1996. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/special/hiv/ethics. Accessed June 26, 1997.

Type of Reference Reference Samples
Journal—article Akagami R, Napolitano M, Sekhar LN. Patient evaluated outcome after surgery for basal meningiomas. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:941-949.
Journal—article "in press" Author(s). Article Title. Journal Name. In press,
(with volume and page info)
Author(s). Article Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue No.):indusive pages. URL. Accessed [date].
(without volume and page info)
Author(s). Article Title. Journal Name. Year, doi:.
Journal—online ahead of print Author(s). Article Title [published online ahead of print Month Day Year]. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages. URL Accessed [date].
Book—single author Benzel EC. Biomechanics of Spine Stabilization: Principles and Clinical Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 1995.
Book—chapter Fischberg GM, Mohammadi A, Suzuki S, Fisher M. Diagnosis and management of moyamoya disease. In: Cohen SN, ed. Management of Ischemic Stroke. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000:291-310.
Book—with editors Sanna M, Saleh E, KhraisT, et al, eds. Atlas of Microsurgery of the Lateral Skull Base. Stuttgart, Germany: Georg Thieme-Verlag; 2008.
Book—online Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (if it is the second edition or above). City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher's name; copyright year. URL Accessed [date].
Website Author (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Title《or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web site. URL Accessed [date].

10. Tables
1) Tables should be created using the table formatting and editing feature of Microsoft Word or Hangeul Word Processor. The title of the table must be noted. Tables cannot be submitted in a picture format.
2) The language for tables is English and the table should be prepared in detail, in order to understand the contents of the manuscript without further reference.
3) Tables should be submitted separately from manuscript. Do not include vertical lines in table, and refer to the table formats in formal papers in Korean Journal of Spine.

11. Figures and Illustrations
1) Figures should have resolution of 300 dpi or above and should be submitted individually (Namely, if Figure 1 is divided into A, B, C and D, do not combine them into one, but submit each of them separately). Allowable file format for figures are JPG or TIF(TIFF) only.
2) Figures should be named according to figure name (example: Fig-1A.tif). If the quality of the photographs is considered as inappropriate for printing, re-submission of them can be requested by the journal.
3) Authors should submit figures in black and white if they want them to be printed in black and white. Authors are responsible for any additional costs of producing color figures. (Additional cost for color printing is determined by the editorial board)
4) Line art should have resolution of 1,200 dpi or more in JPG or TIF format.
(Cover illustrations: Of their works, authors can submit art to be considered as a cover illustration along with the article.)

12. Author check list
1) Before submitting the manuscript, authors should double-check all requirements noted in the agreement form regarding the registration and copyrights of their manuscript. A manuscript that does not fit the author instructions of the journal regarding format and references will be returned to the authors for further correction.
2) The page numbers in the manuscript should be counted from the page with the abstract, and the name and affiliation of the authors should not appear thereafter.
3) Author check list should be prepared, signed by corresponding author, submitted with manuscripts, and then registered on-line. Relevant forms can be downloaded at manuscript submission site.

IV. Publication and Charges

1) Once a manuscript is accepted for publication by the journal, it will be sent to the press, and page proofs will be sent to authors. Authors must respond to the page proofs as soon as possible after making necessary corrections of misspellings, and the location of the photographs, figures or tables. Authors can make corrections for only typing errors, and are not allowed to make any author alteration or substantive changes of the text. Proofs must be returned to the press within 72 hours of receipt. No response from the authors within this time frame will lead the publication of the proof read without corrections, and the editorial board will not be responsible for any mistakes or errors occurring in this process.

2) An article processing charge of KR\300,000/US$300 is required for articles accepted for publication in Korean Journal of Spine. Article processing charge waivers are granted on a decision by the editorial board.

V. Ethical Guidelines
1. Research Ethics
1) All of the manuscripts should be prepared in strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE).
2) Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). Please refer to the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki (http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm) for all investigations involving human materials.
3) Animal experiments also should be reviewed by an appropriate committee (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, IACUC) for the care and use of animals. Also studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (Institutional Biosafety Committee, IBC). The editor of Korean Journal of Spine (Korean J Spine, KJS) may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in clinical studies or IRB approval documents.

2. Conflict of Interest
1) The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the Editor of the authors' potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in the cover letter even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems. Disclosure form shall be same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf).
2) The Editor will decide whether the information on the conflict should be included in the published paper. Before publishing such information, the Editor will consult with the corresponding author. In particular, all sources of funding for a study should be explicitly stated. The KJS asks referees to let its Editor know of any conflict of interest before reviewing a particular manuscript.

3. Authorship
1) Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.
2) When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.

4. Redundant Publication and Plagiarism
1) Redundant publication is defined as "reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)". Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following: (a) "at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no common authors, it is more likely plagiarism than redundant publication)," (b) "the subject or study populations are often the same or similar," (c) "the methodology is typically identical or nearly so," and (d) "the results and their interpretation generally vary little, if at all."
2) When submitting a manuscript, authors should include a letter informing the editor of any potential overlap with other already published material or material being evaluated for publication and should also state how the manuscript submitted to KJS differs substantially from this other material. If all or part of your patient population was previously reported, this should be mentioned in the Materials and Methods, with citation of the appropriate reference(s).

5. Obligation to Register Clinical Trial
1) Clinical trial defined as "any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome" should be registered to the primary registry to be prior publication.
2) KJS accepts the registration in any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Portal (http://www.who.int/ictrp/about/details/en/index.html) as well as www.actr.org.au, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.ISRCTN.org, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm and www.trialregister.nl. The clinical trial registration number shall be published at the end of the abstract.

6. Resolving Ethical Issues
In case of a suspected ethical problem, the editorial board will follow COPE flowcharts (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, International standards for editors and authors (http://publicationethics.org/resources/international-standards-for-editors-and-authors) or ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html)’ can be applied.

Contact Information:
Editor-in-Chief: Yoon Ha, M.D., Ph.D.
Editorial Office
Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine
50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-2172
E-mail: theneurospine@gmail.com
Copyright© Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society. All rights reserved.
Editorial Office
Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine
50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
TEL: +82-2-2228-2172   E-mail: theneurospine@gmail.com
The Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society
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